North Dakota Supreme Court Concludes that a Pugh Clause Controls over the Habendum and Continuous Drilling Clauses

In Robert Post Johnson & A.V.M., Inc. v. Statoil Oil & Gas LP, 918 N.W.2d 58 (N.D. 2018), the North Dakota Supreme Court interpreted an oil and gas lease to resolve a conflict between the habendum and continuous drilling clauses and the Pugh clause.  The habendum and continuous development clauses were part of a form oil and gas lease and the parties separately negotiated a Pugh clause that was added to the lease. At the expiration of the three-year primary term, production in paying quantities was occurring in only three of eight units that included lands covered by the disputed…
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R.A.P. Battle: The Kansas Supreme Court Clips the Rule Against Perpetuities

In Jason Oil Co., LLC v. Littler, 2019 Kan. LEXIS 204 (Kan. 2019) Kansas joined a growing number of jurisdictions declining to apply the rule against perpetuities to defeasible term oil and gas interests. On December 30, 1967, Grantor executed two deeds in favor of separate Grantees conveying tracts of land in Rush County, Kansas (the “1967 Deeds”).  Each 1967 Deed excepted the mineral estate “for a period of 20 years or as long thereafter as oil and/or gas and/or other minerals may be produced.”  Upon the expiration of 20 years, no drilling operations had been conducted on the lands…
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Duhig Revisited – Perryman v. Spartan Tex. Six Capital Partners, Ltd.

Title examination is typically characterized by a series of deeds and conveyances, which—unsurprisingly—do not convey property and/or interests in a neat, uniform fashion.  To eliminate some of this confusion in the context of over-conveyances, the Texas Supreme Court established the Duhig doctrine.  Duhig v. Peavy-Moore Lumber Co., 144 S.W.2d 878 (Tex. 1940).  The Duhig doctrine holds that where full effect cannot be given to the granted interest and the reserved interest, the grantor will be stopped, and the courts will give priority to the granted interest until the granted interest has been fully satisfied.  If the granted interest cannot be…
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